Hunter Orange Requirements United States
Absent of any scientific evidence to the contrary, the IHEA-USA reaffirms our recommendation that Hunter Orange is the most effective color to be worn by hunters in the field to prevent hunting incidents. No nationally recognized study has established or verified standards for the wavelength, luminance, or excitation purity required for visibility of any color other than Hunter Orange in natural environments by human observers. Hunter Orange should have a dominant wavelength between 595 and 605 nanometers, a luminance factor of not less than 40%, and an excitation purity of not less than 85%.
Additionally, no qualitative or quantitative research has been conducted to document the influence, positive or negative, of hunter safety color choice on the recruitment, retention, or reactivation of new or existing hunters. Therefore, IHEA-USA recommends that hunter safety color requirements be established solely on the basis of detect-ability and visibility of a color in natural environments by human observers.
Documents Reviewed by Research Committee:
All persons hunting any wildlife species (except turkey and migratory birds (including crows) and while hunting legally designated species during legal night-time hours) during dates and in areas open by regulation to gun deer season are required to wear an outer garment above the waist with a minimum of 144 square inches of hunter orange or either a full size hunter orange hat or cap. Hunters are not required to wear hunter orange when hunting from a stand elevated twelve (12) feet or more from the ground, when hunting in an enclosed box stand, when traveling in an enclosed vehicle, or when traveling on foot no more than twenty feet directly between an operating enclosed vehicle and a stand where the hunter is exempt from the hunter orange requirement. The hunter orange must be worn when traveling on foot between an operating enclosed vehicle and exempt stand when the distance is more than a direct distance of twenty feet. A small logo and/or printing is permitted on the front of hunter orange caps; otherwise, hunter orange must be of solid color and visible from any angle. Only hunter orange, commonly called blaze orange, ten mile cloth, etc., is legal. The various shades of red as well as camo orange are not legal.
No hunter orange requirement, but strongly recommended to hunters
Upland and big game hunters are strongly encouraged to wear Hunter Orange.
(A) It is unlawful to hunt wildlife, or to accompany or assist anyone in hunting wildlife, in zones open to firearm deer, bear, or elk seasons, without wearing an outer garment, above the waistline, of daylight fluorescent blaze orange (Hunter Orange) within the color range of 595-605 nanometers or fluorescent chartreuse color range of 555nm - 565nm (Hunter Safety Green) totalling at least 400 square inches, and a hunter orange or hunter safety green head hat must be visibly worn on the head. (B) Florescent blaze orange (Hunter Orange)or florescent chartreuse (Hunter Safety Green) totalling at least 144 square inches on each visible side and a minimum of three feet above the ground on each side of a portable, pop-up type ground blinds used on public land. EXCEPTIONS: (1) While migratory bird hunting. PENALTY: $50.00 to $1,000.00.
Upland and big game hunters are strongly recommended to wear Hunter Orange.
It is unlawful to not wear at least 500 square inches of solid (camouflage orange is not legal; mesh garments are legal, but not recommended) daylight FLUORESCENT ORANGE or FLUORESCENT PINK material in an outer garment above the waist, part of which must be a hat or head covering visible from all directions while hunting deer, elk or antelope during any muzzle loading rifle or rifle seasons. BOW HUNTERS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO WEAR ORANGE or PINK DURING THE ARCHERY ONLY SEASONS.
No person shall hunt any wildlife from September 1 through the last day of February without wearing at least a total of 400 square inches of fluorescent orange clothing above the waist visible from all sides. This color requirement shall not apply to archery deer hunting except during the firearms deer seasons (shotgun/rifle and muzzleloader) on state and private lands. During the firearms deer seasons, archery deer hunters may only remove orange clothing when hunting from an elevated tree stand at least 10 feet from the ground (orange is required when walking to and from the stand). Other exemptions from hunter orange requirements include; archery and firearms turkey hunting; waterfowl hunting from blinds or a stationary position; raccoon and opossum hunting from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise; and deer hunting by a deed-listed landowner on his own property.
During a time when it is lawful to take deer with a firearm, any person hunting deer in this State shall display on his head, chest and back a total of not less than 400 square inches of Hunter Orange material.
All deer hunters, and those accompanying them, on public lands during open deer season must wear at least 500 square inches of Hunter Orange on an outer garment above the waist. (Exception: bow hunters during bow season.)
"Hawaii Administrative Rules Title 13-Chapter 122-12 (f)(2)" with regard blaze-orange garments while hunting of game birds: With the exception of Spring Turkey Hunting or designated archery areas, no person shall hunt, serve as a guide, accompany, or assist a hunter in any hunting area, where firearms are permitted, without wearing an exterior garment (shirt, vest, jacket, or coat) made of commercially manufactured, blaze-orange material or solid blaze-orange mesh material with a maximum mesh size of one-eighth inch. (All types of camouflage orange are prohibited for these garments.) When carrying game or wearing a back pack, the blaze-orange on the upper torso must be visible from both front and back. Hawaii Administrative Rules Title 13-Chapter 123-22 (g)(1) addresses blaze-orange garments while hunting game mammals: No person shall hunt, serve as a guide, accompany, or assist a hunter in any hunting area where firearms are permitted without wearing an exterior garment (shirt, vest, jacket, or coat) made of commercially manufactured, solid blaze-orange material or solid blaze-orange mesh material with a maximum mesh size of one-eighth inch. (All types of camouflage orange are prohibited for these garments.) When carrying game or wearing a backpack, the blaze orange on the upper torso must be visible from both front and back.
All dear, bear and feral hog hunters, and those accompanying them, during firearm deer seasons must wear at least 500 square inches of Hunter Orange on outer garments above the waist.
Not required with the exception of those Idaho Fish and Game WMAâ€™s where an upland game bird permit is required. Hunter orange is strongly recommended and enhances hunting safety in many circumstances.
It is unlawful to hunt or trap any species, except migratory waterfowl, during the gun deer season in counties open to gun deer hunting when not wearing 400 square inches of solid blaze orange plus a hat. It is unlawful to hunt upland game (pheasant, rabbit, quail or partridge) when not wearing a hat of solid blaze orange.
Deer (bow and gun), rabbit, squirrel, grouse, pheasant, and quail hunter must wear at least one of the following solid Hunter Orange garments: vest, coat, jacket, coveralls, hat or cap. (Exception: bow hunters for deer until firearms season starts.)
A person shall not hunt deer with firearms unless the person is at the time wearing one or more of the following articles of visible, external apparel: A vest, coat, jacket, sweatshirt, sweater, shirt, or coveralls, the color and material of which shall be solid blaze orange. A person shall not hunt upland game birds, as defined by the department, unless the person is at the time wearing one or more of the following articles of visible, external apparel: A hat, cap, the color and material of which shall be at least fifty percent solid blaze orange. Upland birds include pheasants, quail, partridge, ruffed grouse, and woodcock.
Big game clothing requirements: (a) Each individual hunting deer or elk and each individual assisting an individual hunting deer or elk, shall wear Hunter Orange clothing having a predominant light wave length of 595-605 nanometers; (b) The bright orange color shall be worn as follows: 1) a hat with the exterior of not less than 50 percent of the bright orange color, an equal portion of which is visible from all directions; 2) a minimum of 100 square inches of the bright orange color on the front of the torso; and 3) a minimum of 100 square inches of the bright orange color on the back of the torso.
Hunter orange garments shall be worn by all hunters (except waterfowl and turkey hunters) while hunting on any location or property where any deer or elk gun season is open or permitted by regulations. Garments shall be worn as outer coverings on at least the head, chest and back. They shall be of a solid, unbroken pattern. Any mesh weave opening shall not exceed 1/4 inch by measurement. Garments may display a small section of another color. Camouflage pattern hunter orange garments do not meet these requirements.
Any person hunting deer shall display on his head, chest, and/or back a total of not less than four hundred square inches of material of a daylight fluorescent orange color known as "hunter orange" during the open gun deer hunting season. Persons hunting on privately owned, legally posted land may wear a cap or a hat that is completely covered with hunter orange material in lieu of the foregoing requirements to display four hundred square inches of hunter orange. These provisions shall not apply to persons hunting deer from elevated stands on property which is privately owned and legally posted, or to archery deer hunters, hunting on legally posted land where firearm hunting is not permitted by agreement of the owner or lessee. On Wildlife Manage Areas all hunters except waterfowl and dove hunters must display 400 square inches of hunter orange and wear a hunter orange cap during the open gun season for deer. Hunters participating in special dog seasons for rabbit and squirrel are required to wear a minimum of a hunter orange cap.
Anyone who hunts with a firearm during any open firearm season on deer is required to wear two articles of solid-colored hunter orange clothing (fluorescent orange) which is in good and serviceable condition and which is visible from all sides. One article must be a hat. The other must cover a major portion of the torso, such as a jacket, vest, coat, or poncho. Regulations for 1991 still require that anyone who hunts in the moose hunting district during the moose season must wear one article of solid Hunter Orange clothing.
All hunters and those accompanying them must wear either: 1) a cap of solid fluorescent orange and/or pink; 2) a vest or jacket containing back and front panels of at least 250 square inches of solid fluorescent orange and/or pink. Maryland requires 50% of Camouflage Hunter Orange garment to be fluorescent orange and/or pink; or 3) an outer garment of camouflage fluorescent orange worn above the waist which contains at least 50% daylight fluorescent orange and/or pink. (Exception: Hunters of wetland game birds, fur bearing mammals, doves, crows, wild turkeys, bow hunters during archery season only, falconers, and unlicensed hunters o their own property.
All hunters during shotgun deer season and deer hunters during primitive firearm season must wear at least 500 square inches of Hunter Orange on their chest, back, and head. (Exception: waterfowl hunters in a blind or boat.) All hunters on Wildlife Management Areas during pheasant and quail season must wear a Hunter Orange hat or cap. (Exception: waterfowl hunters in a blind or boat, and raccoon hunters at night.)
A person shall not take game during the established daylight shooting hours from August 15 through April 30 unless the person wears a cap, hat, vest, jacket, or raingear of hunter orange. Hunter orange includes camouflage that is not less than 50% hunter orange. The garments that are hunter orange shall be the hunterâ€™s outermost garment and shall be visible from all sides of the hunter. Exception: This does not apply to a person engaged in the taking of deer with a bow or crossbow during archery deer season, a person taking bear with a bow or crossbow, a person engaged in the taking of turkey or migratory birds other than woodcock, a person engaged in the sport of falconry, or a person who is stationary and in the act of hunting bobcat, coyote, or fox.
A person may not hunt or trap during the open season where deer may be taken by firearms under applicable laws and ordinances, unless the visible portion of the person's cap and outer clothing above the waist, excluding sleeves and gloves, is blaze orange. Blaze orange includes a camouflage pattern of at least 50 percent blaze orange within each foot square. This section does not apply to migratory waterfowl hunters on waters of this state or in a stationary shooting location or to trappers on waters of this state. In addition to requirements already mentioned a person may not take small game other than turkey, migratory birds, raccoons, and predators, except when hunting with nontoxic shot or while trapping, unless a visible portion of at least one article of the person's clothing above the waist is blaze orange. Minnesota requires 50% of a Camouflage Hunter Orange garment be open Hunter Orange.
All deer hunters during any gun season for deer must wear in full view at least 500 square inches of solid, unbroken Hunter Orange visible from all sides.
During firearm deer season, all hunters must wear a cap or hat, and a shirt, vest or coat having the outermost color be Hunter Orange and must be plainly visible from all sides while being worn. Camouflage orange garments do not meet this requirement. (Exception: Department of Conservation areas where deer hunting is restricted to archery methods or waterfowl hunters.
All big game hunters and those accompanying them must wear at least 400 square inches of Hunter Orange above the waist. A hat or cap alone is not sufficient. (Exception: bow hunters during special archery season.)
All deer, antelope, mountain sheep or elk hunters using firearms including muzzleloaders and bow hunters during a firearm deer season must wear at least 400 square inches of Hunter Orange on the head, back, and chest. Upland game hunters are strongly recommended to wear Hunter Orange. Separate Bow hunter education certificate required for everyone hunting deer, antelope, elk or mountain sheep with bow and arrow if they are age 12 through age 29.
Upland and big game hunters are recommended to wear Hunter Orange.
Upland and big game hunters are strongly recommended to wear Hunter Orange.
Firearm hunters must wear a cap made of solid daylight fluorescent orange or an outer garment containing at least 200 square inches of fluorescent orange material visible from all sides at all times while
engaged in hunting. A camo-orange hat alone is not adequate. This applies to all persons while hunting with a firearm for deer, black bear, rabbit, hare, squirrel, coyote, fox, railbirds, and game birds including while in a treestand. See exceptions below along with ground
blind hunting fluorescent orange requirements. It is mandatory to wear a hunter orange hat when firearm hunting for small game on wildlife management areas stocked with pheasant or quail. See list of
WMAs at Pheasant and Quail Stamp Areas, page 14. All firearm and bow and arrow deer and black bear hunters utilizing a ground blind when a
firearm deer season is open concurrently must display 200 square inches of hunter orange a top the blind and visible from all sides or within five feet outside the blind and higher than the blind or at least three feet off the ground, whichever is higher. During these concurrent seasons, bowhunters in treestands also should consider wearing hunter orange.
Exceptions: the hunter orange law does not apply to waterfowl, crow, wild turkey, coyote/fox (during the special permit season, page 54), woodchuck nor bowhunters except that a bowhunter using a deer decoy must wear hunter orange, as described above, while transporting the decoy into and out of the woods and fields. During the Six-day Firearm
Season, it is recommended that bowhunters wear hunter orange.
Any hunter hunting on White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is required to wear at least 244 square inches of blaze orange (approximately the size of a hunting vest). Hunters on Fort Bliss/ McGregor military reservations are required to wear a blaze orange hat and a blaze orange hunting vest and are also required to have hunter education prior to a scheduled hunt. Upland and big game hunters are strongly recommended to wear hunter orange.
New York State law requires hunters age 14 and 15, and their mentors, hunting deer or bear with a gun, to wear fluorescent hunter orange or pink visible from all directions: shirt, jacket, or vest with at least 250 square inches of solid or patterned fluorescent orange or pink (the pattern must be at least 50% orange or pink) OR a hat with at least 50% fluorescent orange or pink.
All other hunters are not required by law to wear fluorescent orange while hunting in New York. However, the DEC highly recommends ALL hunters wear a fluorescent orange hat, vest and/or coat while hunting small game or big game
Any person hunting game animals other than foxes, bobcats, raccoons, and opossums, or hunting upland game birds other than wild turkeys, with the use of firearms, must wear a cap or hat on his head made of Hunter Orange materials or an outer garment of Hunter Orange, visible from all sides. (Exception: landowners hunting on their own land.)
Every person, while hunting big game, shall wear a head covering and an outer garment above the waistline, both of daylight fluorescent orange color, totalling 400 square inches or more and both to be worn conspicuously on the person. This section does not apply to any person hunting big game with bow and arrow during special bow hunting seasons. Additionally, while the muzzleloader and the deer gun seasons are in progress in an area, all big game hunters, including bow hunters, are required to wear a head covering and an outer garment above the waistline of solid daylight fluorescent orange color, totalling at least 400 square inches.
Hunting any wild animal (except waterfowl) in the daylight during deer gun season, the state-wide primitive deer season, and the special area primitive deer season is unlawful unless the hunter is visibly wearing a vest, coat, jacket, or overalls that are either solid hunter orange or camouflage hunter orange.
All firearm deer, elk or antelope hunters must wear a head covering and outer garment above the waist with at least 500 square inches of clothing of which 400 square inches must be Hunter Orange. The camouflage orange pattern is legal as long as there is at least 400 square inches of daylight fluorescent orange. All other hunters must wear either a head covering or outer garment of Hunter Orange during open gun deer season. (Exception: waterfowl, crow, or crane hunters, and those hunting furbearing animals at night.)
Hunters age 17 and under are required to wear a hunter (fluorescent) orange exterior garment or hat when hunting game mammals or upland game birds (except turkey) with any firearm. Details of the regulation:
1) Exterior garment means a shirt, jacket, coat, vest or sweater.
2) Hat means any head covering (hat, bandana).
3)The upper garment or hat must be visible in all directions (e.g. 360Â° of hunter orange).
4)Hunter orange camouflage patterns are acceptable.
5) Game mammals are deer, elk, bear, cougar, pronghorn antelope, Rocky Mountain goat, bighorn sheep and western gray squirrel.
6)Upland birds are forest grouse (blue and ruffed), chukar/Hungarian (gray) partridge, pheasants, quail (California and mountain) and sage grouse.
7)â€œHuntâ€ means to take or attempt to take any wildlife by means involving the use of a weapon.
All fall small game, turkey, bear and deer hunters during the regular firearm deer season, and special archery deer season hunters during any portion of the archery season that coincides with the general small game or turkey seasons, must wear at least 250 square inches of hunter orange material on the head, chest and back combined. Spring turkey hunters must wear a minimum of 100 square inches of hunter orange on the head or back and chest while moving from one location to another. Groundhog hunters must wear 100 square inches of hunter orange on the head. All required hunter orange must be visible in a 360 degree arc. (Exceptions waterfowl, mourning dove, crow, flintlock deer season and archery season hunters except as specified.)
Solid daylight fluorescent orange is required state-wide by hunters described below and by users of state management areas described below and must be worn above the waist and be visible in all directions. Examples which meet the orange requirements are a hat that covers 200 sq. in. or a combination of hat and vest covering 500 sq. in. The following orange requirements apply: 200 sq. in. by small game hunters during the small game season; 200 sq. in. by muzzleloader hunters during the muzzleloader season; 200 sq. in. by archers when traveling to/from stands during muzzle loading season; 500 sq. in. by all hunters (including archers) and all Management Area users during shotgun deer season. Exemptions: Waterfowl hunters while hunting from a boat or blind, over water or field, when done in conjunction with decoys; Crow hunters, when hunting over decoys; Turkey hunters; First segment dove hunters. In addition to above requirements, all other users (hikers, bicyclists, horseback riders, etc.) on State Management Areas are required to wear 200 sq. in. of solid daylight flourescent orange from the second Saturday in September to the last day of February annually, and the third Saturday in April to the last day in May, annually.
On all WMA lands and lands within the Central Piedmont, Western Piedmont and Mountain Hunt Units during the gun hunting season for deer, all hunters must wear either a hat, coat, or vest or solid visible international orange. Hunters are exempt from this requirement while hunting for dove, duck and turkey. Small game hunters while hunting at night or on privately owned lands within the hunt unit are also exempt.
All big game hunters with firearms must wear one or more exterior Hunter Orange garments above the waist. (Exception: turkey hunters.)
All big game hunters with firearms must wear at least 500 square inches of Hunter Orange on a head covering and an outer garment above the waist, visible front and back. (Exception: turkey hunters during gun hunts proclaimed by the commission and those hunting on their own property.)
All hunters and persons accompanying a hunter on National Forests and Grasslands, must wear a minimum of 144 square inches of Hunter Orange visible on both the chest and back plus a Hunter Orange cap or hat. Call the US Forest Service and US Army Corps of Engineers for more information.
If you're hunting in an area where a centerfire rifle hunt is occurring, you must wear a minimum of 400 square inches of hunter orange material on your head, chest and back. In 2009, the Utah Legislature passed a law that allows a camouflage pattern in hunter
orange to meet this requirement. However, the Division strongly encourages hunters to continue using solid hunter orange whenever possible. There are some exceptions to the hunter orange rule. You're not required to wear hunter orange if you're participating in a bighorn sheep hunt, a bison hunt, a moose hunt or a mountain
goat hunt-or a hunt that requires you to possess a statewide conservation permit or a statewide sportsman's permit-unless a centerfire rifle hunt is in progress in the same area.
Upland and big game hunters are strongly recommended to wear Hunter Orange.
Hunters during firearm deer season and those accompanying them must wear Hunter Orange on the upper body, visible from all sides, or a Hunter Orange hat, or display 100 square inches of Hunter Orange within body reach, at shoulder level or higher, visible from all sides.
Hunters must wear a minimum of 400 square inches of fluorescent hunter orange and/or fluorescent hunter pink exterior clothing under specific conditions. This fluorescent clothing must be worn above the waist and be visible from all sides. A hat, by itself, does not meet this requirement. A combination of both colors may be worn to meet the 400 square inch requirement. (Exceptions: During an upland game bird season for anyone hunting upland game birds with a muzzleloading firearm, bow and arrow, or for falconry, and while hunting in GMU limited to muzzleloading or archery and possessing a valid muzzleloading or archery tag for deer or elk.
All deer hunters during deer gun season must wear at least 400 square inches of Hunter Orange on an outer garment.
All hunters during any firearms deer season must have 50% of their outer garments above the waist, including any head covering, colored Hunter Orange or fluorescent pink. (Exception: waterfowl hunters.) Wisconsin accepts camouflage orange/pink, though solid Hunter Orange is recommended.
Anyone who is hunting big and trophy game during an open firearm season is required to wear one exterior garment of fluorescent orange or fluorescent pink, and it must be visible from 360 degrees. This could include a hat, shirt, jacket, coat, vest or sweater. Fluorescent orange camouflage or fluorescent pink camouflage are also legal.
There are other hunters who are also required to wear fluorescent orange or pink:
Archers and crossbow hunters hunting during an open firearm season.
Pheasant hunters on Wyoming Game and Fish Management areas, Glendo State Park and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation lands around Glendo Reservoir.
Wild bison hunters.
No garment color requirements or recommendations.
No garment color requirements or recommendations.
A solid blaze orange hat and an additional 2580 sq. cm. of blaze orange above the waist and visible from all sides must be worn by big game hunters. Bow hunters are exempt during bow hunting seasons or in bow hunting areas only. Wolf hunters are exempt when hunting in game hunting areas while no other big game season is on. Black bear and wolf hunters are exempt during the spring season. Manitoba requires 50% of Camouflage Hunter Orange garment to be daylight fluorescent orange color.
Newfoundland and Labrador
Upland and big game hunters are strongly recommended to wear a minimum of 2580 square centimeters of Hunter Orange (400 square inches).
All hunters and those accompanying them must wear a cap or hat and a vest, coat, or shirt of solid Hunter Orange visible from all sides. Camouflage Hunter Orange is permitted during bow hunter season for deer as long as there are at least 400 square inches visible from all sides. Nova Scotia refuses to recognize Camouflage Hunter Orange as a legal fabric except during archery deer season.
Upland and big game hunters are strongly recommended to wear Hunter Orange.
Every person, while hunting or being a licensed guide accompanying any person engaged in hunting shall wear a hat and upon his or her back, chest and shoulders, an exterior garment of which not less than 2580 square centimeters (400 square inches) in aggregate shall be exposed to view in such a manner as to be plainly visible from all directions, and the color of the hat and the exterior garment shall be solid hunter orange.
All hunters must wear a minimum of 2580 square centimeters (400 sq in) of solid Hunter Orange clothing above the waist which is visible from all sides and head cover during the Deer, Moose and Bear gun hunting seasons. Exceptions include bear hunters, while hunting from an elevated stand, bow hunters during bows only seasons and waterfowl hunters.
All hunters, guides and companions must wear at least 2580 square centimeters (400 square inches) of Hunter Orange on their back, shoulders, and chest, visible from any angle. During hunting season through December 1st, coyote, fox and wolf hunters and guides are required to wear the same as other hunters. (Exception: crow, or migratory bird hunters, and those hunting deer or moose during special archery seasons.)
Prince Edward Island
All upland game hunters are encouraged to wear Hunter Orange.
All big game hunters must wear a complete outer suit of scarlet, bright yellow, Hunter Orange of white, and a head covering of any of these colors, except white. (Exception: bow hunters and black powder hunters during special archery muzzle-loading seasons.)
It is recommended that hunters wear Hunter Orange.